### Ballistic Physics

*Source:** BuyaBullet Corporation*

A projectile in motion has ‘Momentum’, which is calculated by multiplying its Mass (m) by its Velocity (v). Momentum increases with both Mass and Velocity. The formula for

*Momentum = m * v*

Kinetic Energy (KE) of a projectile is determined by the formula: KE = (1/2) * m * v squared, where m represents mass and v represents the velocity. Kinetic Energy increases by both mass and the square of the velocit

The trajectory of a projectile is affected by gravity, air resistance, and the initial velocity and angle of launch. The path of the projectile typically follows a parabolic curve due to gravity.

External Ballistics refers to the study of a projectile's flight behavior before impact. It encompasses factors such as velocity loss, wind drift, the effect of gravity, and even the Coriolis effect.

Terminal Ballistics refers to the study of a projectile's behavior upon impact. It involves factors such as penetration, expansion, and fragmentation if any.

Caliber of a projectile represents its diameter, typically measured in inches or millimeters. A larger caliber generally indicates a larger projectile.

Sectional Density (SD) of a projectile is determined by dividing its mass (m) by its cross-sectional area (A). Sectional density is used to evaluate a projectile's penetration potential. The formula for Sectional Density = m / A

Ballistic Coefficient (BC) of a projectile is a measure of its ability to overcome air resistance. Numerically higher BC values indicate better aerodynamic performance and less velocity loss over a distance.

Gyroscopic stability of a projectile is provided by its spin, generated through rifling in the barrel. This spin stabilizes the projectile in flight, enhancing accuracy.

Terminal Velocity of a projectile occurs when the force of gravity equals the force of air resistance, resulting in a constant velocity. Terminal Velocity varies depending on projectile shape and weight

Ballistic **physics** principles **are what govern** ammunition and projectile **behavior**. Although the formulas and **concepts can be complex**, they play a **crucial role** in understanding the performance and **characteristics of ammunition**.

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